In our dynamo machines, it is well known, we generate alternate currents which we direct by means of a commutator, a complicated device and, it may be justly said, the source of most of the troubles experienced in the operation of the machines. Now, the currents so directed cannot be utilized in the motor, but they mustagain by means of a similar unreliable devicebe reconverted into their original state of alternate currents. The function of the commutator is entirely external, and in no way dues it affect the internal working of the machines. In reality, therefore, all machines are alternate current machines, the currents appearing as continuous only in the external circuit during their transit from generator to motor. In view simply of this fact, alternate currents would commend themselves as a more direct application of electrical energy, and the employment of continuous currents would only be justified if we had dynamos which would primarily generate, and motors which would be directly actuated by such currents.

But the operation of the commutator on a motor is twofold; firstly, it reverses the currents through the motor, and secondly, it effects, automatically, a progressive shifting of the poles of one of its magnetic constituents. Assuming, therefore, that both of the useless operations in the system, that is to say, the directing of the alternate currents on the generator and reversing the direct currents on the motor, be eliminated, it would still be necessary, in order to cause a rotation of the motor, to produce a progressive shifting of the poles of one of its elements, and the question presented itself,How to perform this operation by the direct action of alternate currents? I will now proceed to show how this result was accomplished.

In the first experiment a drum-armature was provided with two coils at right angles to each other, and the ends of these coils were connected to two pairs of insulated contact-rings as usual. A ring was then made of thin insulated plates of sheet-iron and wound with four coils, each two opposite coils being connected together so as to produce free poles on diametrically opposite sides of the ring. The remaining free ends of the coils were then connected to the contact-rings of the generator armature so as to form two independent circuits, as indicated in figure 9. It may now be seen what results were secured in this combination, and with this view I would refer to the diagrams, figures 1 to 8a. The field of the generator being independently excited, the rotation of the armature sets up currents in the coils C C1, varying in strength and direction in the well-known manner. In the position shown in figure 1 the current in coil C is nil while coil C1 is traversed by its maximum current, and the connections my be such that the ring is magnetized by the coils c1 c1 as indicated by the letters N S in figure 1a, the magnetizing effect of the coils c c being nil, since these coils are included in the circuit of coil C.

I don’t want a client who doesn’t want me or that I can not bring a net-benefit to. For this reason, I choose to operate on minimal contract obligations which is entirely contrary to the bloated and highly despised “consulting” World.

Eric Smith